Where were the abenaki people located

This was a political and cultural union that played a significant role in wars against the Haudenosaunee and in the American Revolution.

Abenaki Tribe Facts, History, and Culture

See also American Revolution — Invasion of Canada. Since then, the confederacy has asserted Indigenous rights in issues regarding ecology, health, and access to land and natural resources. In the s, the Eastern Abenaki occupied what is now the state of Maine, except for its northern and easternmost portions. The Iroquoians eventually expanded through the St.

Lawrence Valley , but the region opened up to Western Abenaki expansion when the Iroquoians withdrew westward. See also Abenaki of the St. Lawrence Valley.

Ancestral Tribal Histories

In the census, 9, people identified as having Abenaki ancestry. Abenaki people also reside in other parts of Canada as well as in the United States. During much of the 17th century, the Abenaki were hunters, fishers and gatherers. Favoured game was more often moose than deer. They travelled mainly by birchbark canoes on lakes and streams, and lived in villages near waterfalls on major rivers during the seasons when migratory fish could be harvested.

During other seasons, they dispersed in family groups to the coast or to small camps on interior tributaries. These camps became the bases of trapping territories during the heyday of the fur trade. When the trade declined, many turned to the lumber industry and basketry. Attempts to adopt agriculture did not succeed until after the fur trade developed because farming alone was too risky as a full-time occupation. The Abenaki adapted quickly to the fur trade and a world economy.

Abenaki culture is rich with oral histories, traditional teachings, art, drumming and dancing. Although some traditional practices and ceremonies were suppressed by restrictive federal policies and legislation, such as residential schools and the Indian Act , Abenaki culture has survived and continues to thrive. The Western and Eastern Abenaki spoke closely related Algonquian languages, each having various local dialects.

All Abenaki were part of the Eastern Algonquian cultures, and were separated from other Algonquian in the west and north by a migration of Iroquoian-speaking cultures, a process that took place over the last 1, years. Both of these languages are endangered in Canada and the United States, although local communities have made efforts to revitalize the language. See also Indigenous Languages in Canada. Until that day, such a meeting had not been held in Vermont in over years. We came together to affirm our alliance as Wabanaki people, bound by our traditional wampum belts, to help each other and support one another moving forward as one people.

Vermont Statehouse, Montpelier; April 22, Is there a functional, traditional entity of leadership in addition to your modern government system? We have a very traditional tribal society and form of government that we adhere to.

All Sections

Our tribal Constitution is not only on paper in the Vermont state government archives, but also traditionally written in wampum bead strands for our people as well. Our sagomo is appointed for life or until the chief chooses to step aside or is deemed unfit to hold the position by the Council elders. At that time a Grand Council will be ordered by the Tribal Council, and tribal members will be asked to vote for a new leader selected by the Council elders.

As a councilman and elder I assist our chief in many areas within our Native community, from repatriation and protection of ancestral sites to working with our younger tribal members on issues they may be having within our tribe.


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I also work closely with our other councilwoman and elder on issues that pertain to the women of the tribe. I would have to say my parents, along with my maternal aunt. My mother and aunt were both very strong, independent female role models in my life. I am also inspired by my father, who was very poor growing up in rural Kentucky, and by descending from a Removal Cherokee great-grandfather. My family imparted many lessons about being humble but proud of who you are, and about never allowing your struggles to define you. Of the four Vermont-recognized tribes, we are the second smallest in membership.

The Abenaki People of the Dawn

We have a little over 60 tribal members at this time. We Elnu have the same criteria as many other Native communities: You must provide proof of Native descent or ancestry through supporting genealogy records, documents, and the like. Ropes were wrapped around the wigwam to hold the birch bark in place.

Temporary tepees were used on hunting trips that housed just 3 people. What did the Abenaki live in? Longhouses Many other Abenaki lived in oval-shaped longhouses. Inter-tribal warfare was harsh and frequent so people lived in fortified longhouse villages surrounded by fencing palisades and reinforced with mud. Longhouses were built up to feet long, 20 feet wide and 20 feet high. What clothes did the Abenaki wear? The clothes worn by the Abenaki varied according to the season. In the hot, humid summer the men wore breechcloths tucked over a belt that hung to mid-thigh at the back.

The breechcloths were often accompanied by leather leggings kept in place with strips of cloth like garters to protect their legs. The leggings tapered towards the ankle and the outside was decorated with a fringe or beadwork. Moccasins were made with a long tongue and a high collar that could be folded up or down. In the wet and snowy winters snowshoes were also worn during the winter.

The Abenaki women wore deerskin wraparound skirts or dresses and also wore leggings. In the winter cloaks made from buckskin or other animal skins were worn by both men and women. The Abenaki also wore highly distinctive, embellished pointed or peaked hoods made from birch bark or leather that covered the shoulder decorated with feathers or tufts of animal hair at the point. What food did the Abenaki eat?

Abenaki Tribe Facts: Culture

Fish such as sturgeon, pike and bullhead were caught. Hunters provided meat from deer venison , bear, moose and smaller game like squirrel or rabbit. Birds and waterfowl such as duck, grouse and wild turkey also added to the variety of their food. Their diet was complemented by vegetables, mushrooms, nuts acorns, hickory and butternuts and fruits plums, cherries, blueberries, strawberries and raspberries.

Abenaki Tribe (Abanaki, Abnaki, Abenakis)

Maple syrup was obtained from the sap of the maple tree. What type of Transportation did the Abenaki use? Birch Bark Canoes The Abenaki Native Americans built canoes made from the bark of the birch trees over a wooden frame.